In the distant past manufacturers always used their own engine. More recently with big collaborations between manufacturers, often the engine can be supplied by another manufacturer. As this means the motive power is no longer as directly connected to the brand doesn’t that open the door to efficient generic electric motors being used throughout by many different manufacturers.   And secondly, with this in mind, what does Audi think is going to be the key to brand differentiation in the future?

Also in the past there have been OEM´s which bought ICE´s from other manufacturers and also today there is a premium car company (outside of VW group) doing it.

In electric power trains the collaboration between Ford an VW with Ford joining in the MEB Platform is an example of a collaboration in BEV´s. However I think the electric motor remains a differentiating factor especially in the premium sector. Drivability and efficiency remain key factors for the customer experience.

A complete answer of the second part of the question is outside of my scope, but for me the powertrain is an important part of the brand differentiation in both ICE and electric models.    
(Dr. Jari Hyvönen, Audi AG)

Given the high performance of Electric Motors, definitely there is a chance to cover a broad market segment with similar solution (the VW is a great example with their purely electric platforms), we see a certain variability to persist in the future (e.g. with premium segments going to 800V technology earlier than others). The technology leverage needs to be coupled with a clear efficiency/ range advantage.
(Andrea Loi, ZF Group)

How do you see the evolution of motor components production, such as PMs, electrical steel, coppers, etc? What is required to match this booming market?

I think a lot of innovations are going on with motor components and they are extremely important to the industry. For example, the recent development of rare-earth magnet technology leads to the dominance of IPM motors in the market. For the second question, what is required to match this booming market, this is a very broad topic and has many directions to follow. I probably cannot give a comprehensive answer covering all of them. Just giving an example, following the trend that we may move towards higher voltage level (~800V), better electric insulation and thermal conductivity of the copper wire coating is likely a legitimate requirement.
(Zhiyi Su, Hitachi)

@ Dr. Hyvonen: Do you see the trend to give more an more production of IDM (Rotor and Stator/ transmission etc.) parts towards the Tier 2 suppliers and what kind of process may stay in the EOM/ Tier1 control?

I think this is a decision each OEM has to do by itself depending on the situation of resources, know-how etc. There can also be market-specific solutions. At the moment I see a trend e.g. in electronic components that OEM´s talk directly with Tier2 suppliers. In some products a Tier1 supplier can also be a Tier2 for another Tier1 supplier.

As an example, in stator production we purchase the materials directly from specialised suppliers. In another example transmission components can be machined using existing infrastructure along the transition path.
(Dr. Jari Hyvönen, Audi AG)

Who will provide the knowhow/technology for the engine/complete platform in future, OEM or TIER1?

I think the answer is “both”. On one hand, OEMs will call the definition/requirements/functionalities of the complete platform at the end of the day. On the other hand, we do see a few leading tier 1 suppliers have the knowhow on not only components, but also at sub-system or system level. I expect the collaboration between OEMs and suppliers will develop the technology for the complete platform in future.
(Zhiyi Su, Hitachi)

What is the duration of an BEV-Powertrain. Do you speak about a typical lifecycle of 7 years? or 1-12 years like Gearbox-Projects?

According to Electrical and Electronics Tech Team Roadmap published by US DRIVE (, the useful life target by 2025 for power electronics and electric motors is set to 15 years.
(Zhiyi Su, Hitachi)

Is inhouse production only reserved for the largest OEM? Or also for smaller OEM?

Smaller OEM´s inside a larger group can fully benefit from synergies and choose a powertrain from existing in-house products. For stand-alone smaller companies it is a matter of resources and relying e.g. on a Tier 1 supplier can be an attractive option.
(Dr. Jari Hyvönen, Audi AG)

What´s the next big thing? Fuell cell + ICE?

For the electric motor power both from a battery and a fuel cell are welcome. The combination of a fuel cell and an ICE would surprise me personally. There are however discussions about the “revival” of a hydrogen powered ICE going on. Maybe you have the next big thing in mind – if so please let me be the first one to know.
(Dr. Jari Hyvönen, Audi AG)

How about the e-Powertrain for FCEV (fuel cell EVs)? Is the trend completely Inhouse or Outsourced there?

Please see the question above. In my idea a fuel cell as a power source would be integrated in the existing car infrastructure.
(Dr. Jari Hyvönen, Audi AG)

For the powertrain (e-motor, reducer and inverter) we see a strong leverage of existing Battery EV powertrain components since volumes do not justify a new development at the moment.
(Andrea Loi, ZF Group)

Can we expect to see the mild-HEV market-share increase worldwide (Latin America for example) independently of CO2 regulations and/or government incentives at 2025 horizon?

MHEV might have the chance to become “new normal” (as standard replacement of ICE engines) in several regions – this of course depends on the regulation each country / region will define, potentially taking Europe as example.
(Andrea Loi, ZF Group)

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